Tudor England FAQ Frequently Asked Questions

Simply click on a question and you will be taken to the answer.

black-and-white version of the van de Passe etching of Queen Elizabeth I General Questions
Who were the Tudors?
When did they rule England?
Why are they so famous?
What did they accomplish?
Can you give me a brief history of Tudor England?

Where can I view the Tudor family tree?
Where can I look at portraits of the Tudors?
What is the 'Tudor Rose'?

Does this website have a search engine?
I am quoting from this website for my paper / report. How do I correctly cite the source?
When was the site last updated?


Specific Questions

Was Henry VII really a miser?

Did Elizabeth of York really hate Henry VII?

Did Prince Arthur and Katharine of Aragon consummate their marriage?

Why did Henry VIII have six wives?
Who were the six wives?
Did Henry VIII really murder all his wives?
What was the 'King's Great Matter'?
What was the Reformation?
How did Henry VIII die?

How did Katharine of Aragon die?
Why do you spell Katharine's name as you do? (And why do you spell Catherine Howard and Katharine Parr's differently?)

Was Anne Boleyn really a witch? Did she have an extra finger? Did she really commit adultery and have an incestuous affair with her brother? How many times was she pregnant as Queen?
Where is Anne Boleyn buried?

Did Jane Seymour die of complications from a Caesarean section?

Was Anne of Cleves really that ugly?
What happened to Anne of Cleves after Henry divorced her?

Did Catherine Howard commit adultery while Queen of England?
Where is Catherine Howard buried?

How many times was Katharine Parr married?
Was Katharine Parr imprisoned by Henry VIII?

What happened to Henry VIII's sisters, Margaret and Mary Tudor?

Did Henry VIII execute a lot of people?

Did Henry VIII have a legitimate reason to divorce Katharine of Aragon?

How did Edward VI die?

Who is the 'Nine Days Queen'?
Did Lady Jane Grey want to be Queen of England?
Did Lady Jane Grey love her husband?
Where is Lady Jane Grey buried?

Why is Mary I called 'Bloody Mary'?
Are there two Mary Tudors at this site?
Did Mary I really hate her half-sister, Elizabeth?
Was Mary I ever pregnant during her marriage to Philip of Spain?
What were Mary I's last words?
Where is Mary I buried?

Was Elizabeth I truly a great queen - or did her ministers do all the work?
How smart was Elizabeth I?
Did Elizabeth ever plan to marry anyone?
Was Elizabeth really a 'Virgin Queen'? Did she have secret lovers and/or children?
Why is the 1588 battle with the Spanish Armada so famous?
Why are there so many portraits of Elizabeth I?
Where is Elizabeth I buried?

Why was Mary, queen of Scots a prisoner in England?
How long was Mary, queen of Scots a prisoner in England?
Are Mary, queen of Scots and Mary Tudor the same person?
Why did Elizabeth I have Mary, queen of Scots killed?
Was Mary, queen of Scots guilty of the crimes for which she was executed?
Where is Mary, queen of Scots buried?
Why is Mary, queen of Scots's last name sometimes spelled 'Stewart' and other times 'Stuart'?

Why did Elizabeth I leave her throne to James I of Scotland?
What dynasty followed the Tudors?



Who were the Tudors?
The Tudors were a Welsh-English family that ruled England from 1485 to 1603. Henry Tudor was the son of Margaret Beaufort, who was descended from King Edward III through an illegitimate line, and Edmund Tudor, the son of Princess Catherine of Valois and her second husband, Owen Tudor. Through Catherine of Valois, Jasper was the half-brother of the last Lancastrian king, Henry VI. The Yorkist branch of the Plantagenet dynasty would eventually seize the throne from the incompetent Henry VI, but their reign ended when Richard III was killed at the battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485. Henry Tudor then claimed the throne as King Henry VII. He promptly married Elizabeth of York, daughter of the only successful Yorkist king, Edward IV, and niece of Richard III.
Henry VII and Elizabeth of York's second son, three of their grandchildren and one of their great-grandchildren, would rule England as part of the Tudor dynasty. When their rule ended, the throne passed to the Scottish branch of their family - James I was the great-grandson of their daughter, Margaret Tudor.

Visit Tudor Genealogy for more information.
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When did they rule England?
The Tudors ruled England from 1485 to 1603.
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Why are they so famous?
The Tudors are famous because their dynasty was full of colorful characters and big events. Henry VIII and his six wives.... the English reformation.... the tragic tale of Lady Jane Grey.... the great intelligence of Elizabeth I and the artistic accomplishments of her reign.... During the sixteenth century, England emerged from the medieval world. It was a time of great change, most notably it marked the end of the Catholic church in England. There was an attendant rise in nationalism, a new spirit of confidence and patriotism swept the country. Great naval exploits began the great English seafaring tradition. Whether as pirates or officers or explorers, Elizabethan sailors controlled the seas. And besides the political and religious changes, the Tudors themselves were interesting and complex people.
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What did they accomplish?
The Tudors were able to establish England as a world power. They did so by positioning their country as a peace-maker between the dueling powers of France and Spain/the Holy Roman Empire. They also gave England a century of dynastic stability. With the exception of Lady Jane Grey's brief reign and Catholic attempts to place Mary, queen of Scots on Elizabeth I's throne, most Tudor monarchs came to the throne - and remained on the throne - unchallenged. This lengthy period of peace allowed England a much-needed respite from the Lancastrian-Yorkist wars. Government ran more efficiently; royal power replaced that of aristocrats and there was a uniform system of justice and taxation throughout the country. And, as always in times of peace, the arts flourished.
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Can you give me a brief history of Tudor England?
Tudor England began when Henry VII became king in 1485. There were five Tudor monarchs, not counting Lady Jane Grey who ruled for just nine days. The monarchs were, in order, Henry VII (ruled from 1485 to 1509), his son Henry VIII (ruled from 1509 to 1547), Edward VI, son of Henry VIII (ruled from 1547 to 1553), Mary I, daughter of Henry VIII (ruled from 1553 to 1558), and Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII (ruled from 1558 to 1603.) The most powerful Tudor monarchs were Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, though she was far more beloved of the English people. Both were powerful personalities who were able to control their squabbling councilors and answer the demands of an increasingly vocal Parliament. Under Henry VII, the English government came to be more stabilized and centralized. Under Henry VIII, English authority was tested on the Continent, though even military victories were too costly to maintain. A great victory over Scotland early in his reign (1513) was most notable; the attendant confusion of its northern neighbor was beneficial for England. Henry VIII's desperate quest for a legitimate heir led to the Reformation; this was the end of the Catholic church's authority in England. The king, unable to obtain an annulment, declared himself Supreme Head of a new English church. He also sold or destroyed most church property in England. His son, Edward VI, was just a child when he inherited the throne but already known for his piety and serious nature. His councilors continued to strengthen the Protestant state, but their plans were dashed when Edward died at 16 years of age. An attempt to place his Protestant cousin, Lady Jane Grey, on the throne instead of the Catholic Princess Mary failed. Mary was declared queen to great acclaim; she was originally very popular even with the Protestants. But a policy of religious persecution, a hated marriage with Philip of Spain, and bad agricultural conditions (as well as the debt she had inherited from her father and brother) soon made Mary broken-hearted and disliked. She was succeeded by her half-sister, Elizabeth, who was a religious pragmatist and passionately devoted to her country. Elizabeth's policy of toleration was extended to both the religious and political spheres. Above all else, she avoided extremism at all costs. She often prevaricated over major decisions, unwilling to commit to an action before all diplomatic attempts failed. This infuriated many of her advisors, but it also gave her country the religious and political peace it needed to thrive. Her reign was marked by the great victory over the Spanish Armada in 1588, the artistic achievements of men such as Shakespeare and Bacon, and English exploration and colonization of North America.
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Where can I view the Tudor family tree?
Visit the Tudor Genealogy site. It has a graphic image of the family tree and a more detailed text genealogy.
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Where can I look at portraits of the Tudors?
You can visit the Images section of my site. You can also visit Tudorhistory.org and Tudor-portraits.com.
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What is the 'Tudor Rose'?
The Tudor Rose is the most famous symbol of the Tudor dynasty. You can see a beautiful example of it on the main page. It shows the petals of a red rose enfolding the petals of a white rose. The red rose was the symbol of the House of Lancaster and the white rose was the symbol of the House of York. Henry VII was the first Tudor king and a Lancastrian. He married Princess Elizabeth of York. Their marriage was the literal union of both houses, symbolized by the new 'Tudor Rose'. Also, the Wars of the Roses were thus called because they represented the 15th century struggle between Lancaster and York for the throne of England.
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sketch of Henry Tudor while he was exiled in France

sketch of the future King Henry VII while he was exiled in France

Was Henry VII really a miser?
Henry VII, the first Tudor king, was tight-fisted with money. His tax inspectors were notorious and despised. However, the English treasury was nearly empty after years of wars. Henry was determined to create a stable government and all governments need money to run. It became something of an obsession with him, particularly in his later years. But to his credit, he left a healthy treasury to his son and heir, Henry VIII - which the latter promptly spent.

To learn more about Henry VII, visit his website.
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Did Elizabeth of York really hate Henry VII?
Many authors have argued that Elizabeth hated Henry because he took the throne from her family and she was forced to marry him. But all the contemporary accounts I have read indicate they had a pleasant enough marriage. Henry VII never had an affair and he genuinely mourned her death in 1503. Elizabeth's life as queen was primarily domestic. Her motto 'Humble and Reverent' sums up her character.
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Did Prince Arthur and Katharine of Aragon consummate their marriage?
This question was very important during Henry VIII's reign. He said his marriage to Katharine should be annulled because she had been his brother's wife. He disregarded the papal dispensation which had given them permission to wed in 1509 by arguing that the Pope could not disregard the Bible itself. There are passages in Leviticus which specifically forbid a man taking his brother's wife as his own. Katharine swore that she and Arthur had never consummated their marriage, as did her duenna.
I have to support Katharine of Aragon on this one; her marriage to Arthur probably wasn't consummated. They were both young and Arthur was already very ill. Also, Katharine was deeply pious; it is difficult to believe she would lie to a papal legate about such a thing.
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portrait of King Henry VIII, c1542

portrait of King Henry VIII, c1542

Why did Henry VIII have six wives?
Henry had six wives because....
He had the first wife because he was betrothed to her by his father. He had the second wife because he fell in love and also needed a legitimate male heir. He had the third wife because he still needed a male heir. He had the fourth wife because of diplomatic reasons. He had the fifth wife because he fell in love again. He had the sixth wife because he was old and sick and grouchy and needed a companion and nurse who wouldn't give him too much trouble.

To learn more about Henry VIII's six wives, visit their website.
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Who were the six wives?
They were (in order) Katharine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard and Katharine Parr.
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Did Henry VIII really murder all his wives?
No, only two of the six wives were executed - the second wife, Anne Boleyn, and the fifth wife, Catherine Howard. His first wife died of natural causes. His third wife died from childbirth complications. His fourth wife was divorced and outlived him. And the sixth wife outlived him as well.
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What was the 'King's Great Matter'?
This refers to Henry VIII's attempts to annul his marriage Katharine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn. It consumed several years of his reign.
It also involved the dissolution of all Catholic monasteries in England.

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What was the Reformation?
The Reformation refers to a period in the early 16th century in which the Roman Catholic Church was challenged by a new form of Christianity collectively known as Protestantism. The Catholic Church was both a religious and political institution; by the 16th century, corruption was widespread and many Christians were disappointed in the excesses and abuses of church leaders.
The Reformation began in 1517 when a German priest named Martin Luther posted his Ninety-five Theses on the door of a royal church in Wittenberg. Luther did not want to start a new religion; he merely wanted to reform the papacy. However, a few years later, Pope Leo X excommunicated him. Luther's main philosophical idea was 'justification by faith', the idea that salvation is granted as a gift through God's grace and not through a priestly intermediary. He also advocated marriage for the clergy. His ideas were revolutionary and scandalous, but also very popular. They represented an attempt to bring religious faith back to the people and end long-standing corruption within the church. But the doctrine of 'justification by faith' also sharply curtailed the church's power over spirituality, making it a matter of personal debate and belief. As Lady Jane Grey, the Nine Days' Queen of England, wrote of her Protestant faith in 1554, 'I ground my faith upon God's word, and not upon the church.... The faith of the church must be tried by God's word, and not God's word by the church; neither yet my faith.'
In England, the Reformation was mainly associated with Henry VIII's attempts to annul his marriage to Katharine of Aragon. When the papacy refused to annul their union due to the political pressure of Katharine's nephew, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Henry was outraged. He spent several years attempting to persuade the pope to change his mind. In the end, he simply declared himself Supreme Head of the Church of England and confiscated all church lands and money in his country. This is known to history as 'the dissolution of the monasteries.' However, Henry VIII remained a spiritual Catholic; he disliked Luther's ideas and was never a Protestant himself. He simply rejected Roman Catholic influence in England. But he had unwittingly opened up the door to dramatic changes. From 1533 onwards, the influence of the Roman Catholic Church in England declined while the new ideas of the Reformation began to slowly gain adherents. The resulting religious convulsions would consume most of Europe for the entire century. In Tudor England, the conflict between the old faith and the new consumed its rulers. Henry VIII was a lapsed Catholic; his successor Edward VI was a devout Protestant; his successor Mary I was a devout Catholic; her successor Elizabeth I was, understandably enough, a religious pragmatist. However, she came into conflict with her Catholic cousin, Mary, queen of Scots.
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How did Henry VIII die?
Henry had been in ill health for some time. He was obese and this led to many complications in his health, such as fevers, headaches and ulcers. He died on 28 January 1547 after suffering through a bad fever; he was bled during his illness, which undoubtedly contributed to his death.

To learn more about Henry VIII's life, visit his website.
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How did Katharine of Aragon die?
Contrary to rumor, Katharine was not poisoned by Henry VIII. If he had been that ruthless, he would have killed her years before and saved himself the whole trouble of his 'Great Matter'. Most historians believe she died of cancer.

To learn more about Katharine of Aragon, visit her website.
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Why do you spell Katharine's name as you do? (And why do you spell Catherine Howard and Katharine Parr's differently?)
I spell Katharine of Aragon's name as it is spelled on her tomb at Peterborough. I chose to spell Catherine Howard's with a 'C' because it's spelled thus by LB Smith in his biography of Henry VIII's fifth queen. Katharine Parr's name is spelled that way to differentiate her from the wife who preceded her.

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Was Anne Boleyn really a witch? Did she have an extra finger? Did she really commit adultery and have an incestuous affair with her brother? How many times was she pregnant as Queen?
No, Anne Boleyn was not a witch. Yes, she did have a small growth on one hand which some have called an extra finger. No, she did not commit adultery or have an incestuous affair with her brother. Even her enemies admitted the charges were false, simply used as excuses to execute her. She was pregnant at least three times, but only gave birth to one living child - a baby girl who would grow up to be Elizabeth I.

To learn more about Anne Boleyn, visit her website.
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Where is Anne Boleyn buried?
Anne Boleyn is buried at the chapel of St Peter ad Vincula at the Tower of London. She is not buried in a regular coffin, however, since one was not provided; instead, her body was forced into an old arrow chest.
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miniature portrait of Jane Seymour by Lucas Horenbout

miniature portrait of Jane Seymour by Lucas Horenbout

Did Jane Seymour die of complications from a Caesarean section?
This rumor has been around for a long time, but it's not true. Jane actually lived several days after the birth of her son, Edward, and was able to greet well-wishers. But she soon succumbed to a violent fever and died. Most historians believe she died from puerperal sepsis, an infection which killed many new mothers. Keep in mind that, even today, childbirth is a dangerous and bloody business. In the 16th century, standards of hygiene were very lax. Puerperal sepsis caused severe fevers and delusions; it was almost always fatal.
Henry VIII's sixth wife, Katharine Parr, would also die from it.

To learn more about Jane Seymour, visit her website.
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Was Anne of Cleves really that ugly?
It's ironic to me that, of all of Henry's six wives, the one who is most attractive to modern eyes is the one he divorced for being a 'Flanders mare'. You can look at portraits of Anne (one is below this answer) and decide for yourself. It was probably a simple case of 'chemistry', or a lack thereof. You want to kiss some people and you don't want to kiss others - why? Henry VIII simply wasn't attracted to her but that doesn't mean she was ugly; it simply means she wasn't his type.

To learn more about Anne of Cleves, visit her website.
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miniature portrait of Anne of Cleves by Hans Holbein

miniature portrait of Anne of Cleves by Hans Holbein


What happened to Anne of Cleves after Henry divorced her?
Anne remained in England, where she was treated with great respect and honor. Henry called her his 'sister' and she was given lots of money and lands in their divorce settlement. She came to court regularly and enjoyed the life of an independent, wealthy woman. She also became quite fond of English beer. I think we can agree that she was probably the happiest of the six wives.
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Did Catherine Howard commit adultery while Queen of England?
Probably. You can read her letter to Thomas Culpeper here.

To learn more about Catherine Howard, visit her website.
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Where is Catherine Howard buried?
She is buried at the chapel of St Peter ad Vincula, along with her cousin Anne Boleyn and other victims of Henry VIII.
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How many times was Katharine Parr married?
Katharine was married four times. Henry VIII was her third husband. She had one child with her fourth husband, and died of puerperal sepsis shortly afterwards.

To learn more about Katharine Parr, visit her website.
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Was Katharine Parr imprisoned by Henry VIII?
Almost, but her quick wit and instinct for survival saved her. Religious conservatives at Henry's court attempted to persuade the king his wife was a heretic. After being lectured one too many times on religious matters by Katharine, Henry was inclined to agree. Katharine was warned of the plot and, without letting on to the king, told him she was grateful to talk about such matters with him so he could guide her in the correct direction. His ego soothed, the king again favored her. When guards came to arrest Katharine, Henry personally berated them and protected her.
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What happened to Henry VIII's sisters, Margaret and Mary Tudor?
Margaret married the king of Scotland, James IV, and upon his death, she married the earl of Angus. Mary wed the king of France and, upon his death, she wed the duke of Suffolk.

To learn more about Mary Tudor, visit her website. To learn more about Margaret Tudor, visit her website.
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Did Henry VIII execute a lot of people?
He executed a lot of people on trumped-up charges, or what is commonly termed 'judicial murder'. He was very capricious and tyrannical, particularly as he grew older. He was also sensitive to other claims on the Tudor throne; for that reason, he imprisoned or executed most of his Plantagenet relatives.
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Did Henry VIII have a legitimate reason to divorce Katharine of Aragon?
Yes. Other queens were divorced for a lot less. The annulment would have been granted if Katharine's nephew had not been Holy Roman Emperor. His position gave him great influence over papal policy.
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How did Edward VI die?
Edward died of tuberculosis. Recently, historians and doctors suggested that it may have been complicated by measles.

To learn more about Edward VI, visit his website.
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Who is the 'Nine Days Queen'?
The description refers to Lady Jane Grey, the Tudor cousin who ruled England for just nine days in 1553. She was later executed by Mary I.

To learn more about Lady Jane Grey, visit her website.
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Did Lady Jane Grey want to be Queen of England?
No, she did not.
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Did Lady Jane Grey love her husband?
No, quite the contrary. By all accounts, she disliked Guildford and refused to have him crowned king, though she appreciated his newfound maturity and composure upon their imprisonment.
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Where is Lady Jane Grey buried?
At the chapel of St Peter ad Vincula, alongside Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard. As at Anne's execution, there was no coffin provided for Jane's corpse. Her body lay beside the block for several hours before someone finally found a coffin.
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Mary Tudor as princess of England, by Master John, 1544

portrait of Princess Mary Tudor in 1544, by Master John

Why is Mary I called 'Bloody Mary'?
Several hundred Protestants were burned as heretics during her reign. Hence, she is called 'Bloody Mary'.

To learn more about Mary I, visit her website.
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Are there two Mary Tudors at this site?
Yes, one is Mary Tudor, sister of Henry VIII. The other is Mary Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII.
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Did Mary I really hate her half-sister, Elizabeth?
Yes.
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Was Mary I ever pregnant during her marriage to Philip of Spain?
No. She thought she was pregnant - she hoped she was - but it was probably an 'hysterical pregnancy'. Her menstrual cycle was always irregular and she had a distended stomach, possibly from a tumor.
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What were Mary's last words?
It is rumored she said that if her body was cut open, the words 'Calais' and 'Philip' would be found engraved upon her heart. It is an apocryphal story. Calais was the last English outpost on the continent, lost during her reign, and Philip was the beloved husband who had abandoned her.
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Where is Mary I buried?
In Westminster Abbey, beside her half-sister, Elizabeth I.
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Was Elizabeth I truly a great queen - or did her ministers do all the work?
She was truly a great queen. Though she had good ministers, chief among them William Cecil, Elizabeth - like her father - was always in charge.

To learn more about Elizabeth I, visit her website.
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the Armada Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I, by George Gower

The Armada Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I, by George Gower

How smart was Elizabeth I?
Very smart. She was undoubtedly one of the most (if not the most) intelligent monarchs to rule England. She was always a dedicated scholar and genuinely loved to study and learn. Her tutor Roger Ascham, and indeed everyone who met her, recognized and commented upon her intelligence. Of course, this was believed to be a 'masculine' trait and only acceptable because of her special position as queen.
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Did Elizabeth ever plan to marry anyone?
Probably not. She used marriage negotiations as political tools, and she personally loved Robert Dudley. But she was never enthusiastic about the prospect of marriage. And who can blame her? After the disastrous examples of her father and half-sister, Elizabeth had no reason to equate marriage with personal happiness. She also realized that any marriage would end her authority as queen in her own right.
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Was Elizabeth really a 'Virgin Queen'? Did she have secret lovers and/or children?
She was probably a virgin. It's difficult to imagine any secret affair remaining secret for long. And birth control was tricky and untrustworthy in the 16th century. She knew that any affair would risk a pregnancy - and that would destroy her life. Furthermore, it is worth noting Elizabeth's own strict and methodical character, and the disdain she showed for women who could not control their feelings or appreciate the consequences of their actions. Consider her opinions of her two cousins, Mary, queen of Scots and Catherine Grey. Both rushed into hasty, inappropriate and passionate unions and both had disastrous results. Elizabeth looked down upon them both, remarking that they would do well to remember their high positions in life and its attendant responsibilities.
She lamented her lost opportunities for love and a family of her own. But she was queen and it was an exalted and lonely position.
No, she never had children. It's fun to read theories that she was the mother of Bacon - or Shakespeare - or was even Shakespeare himself.... but could she really keep a pregnancy secret? Foreign ambassadors paid her servants to learn every intimate detail of her life. Upon hearing some gossip about her relationship with Dudley, Elizabeth observed that a thousand eyes were always upon her so how could she do anything scandalous?
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Why is the 1588 battle with the Spanish Armada so famous?
Because England was a small nation with a little navy and they were facing the greatest power in the world. And they defeated it, with help from Mother Nature. It marked the beginning of England's mastery of the seas. The great history of the English navy began, as did serious English exploration and colonization.
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Why are there so many portraits of Elizabeth I?
Because she ruled for such a long time (45 years) and because she understood the value of propaganda. Her portraits were iconographic; they represented the queen in all her majesty, triumphant and beautiful. They symbolized the confidence and pride of her nation. It was also a sign of loyalty to have portraits of the queen in your house. Many nobles commissioned portraits, or copies of official portraits.

To view portraits of Elizabeth I, with commentary, visit the Elizabethan Images webpage.
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Where is Elizabeth I buried?
In Westminster Abbey, beside her half-sister Mary I.
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Why was Mary, queen of Scots a prisoner in England?
Mary fled to England after losing a battle against her Scottish foes. She was seeking Elizabeth's aid in restoring her to the throne of Scotland.

To learn more about Mary, queen of Scots, visit her website.
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How long was Mary, queen of Scots a prisoner in England?
Mary was imprisoned from 1568 to 1587. She was just 25 years old when she arrived in England and 44 years old when she was executed.
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portrait of Mary, queen of Scots, c1558

portrait of Mary, queen of Scots, c1558

Are Mary, queen of Scots and Mary Tudor the same person?
No. Mary Tudor was Henry VIII's sister. Mary, queen of Scots was the granddaughter of Margaret Tudor, Henry VIII's sister.
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Why did Elizabeth I have Mary, queen of Scots killed?
Because she was conniving to have Elizabeth assassinated and herself made queen of England. In fairness to Mary, she only began plotting after being imprisoned for several years and it was clear she would never be released.
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Was Mary, queen of Scots guilty of the crimes for which she was executed?
Yes, probably. She even admitted to plotting against Elizabeth, but said it was only to gain her freedom.
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Where is Mary, queen of Scots buried?
In Westminster Abbey. Her body was moved there by her son, James, who became king of England in 1603.
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Why is Mary, queen of Scots's last name sometimes spelled 'Stewart' and other times 'Stuart'?
In Scotland, her family name was spelled 'Stewart'. However, Mary was half-French and spent her formative years in France. Therefore, she adopted the French spelling of Stewart, which was 'Stuart'. (She also signed her name 'Marie', which was the French spelling of her first name.)
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Why did Elizabeth I leave her throne to James I of Scotland?
James was Elizabeth's closest male relative. He was part Tudor as well, being the great-grandson of Margaret Tudor, eldest daughter of the first Tudor king, Henry VII.
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What dynasty followed the Tudors?
The Stuart dynasty followed the Tudors, so called because their family name was Stuart/Stewart.
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Does this website have a search engine?
Yes, it does. Click here to visit the Tudor England search engine.
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I am quoting from this website for my paper / report. How do I correctly cite the source?
The correct format is based upon both the Turabian/Chicago and MLA styles.
Here is an example:
Hanson, Marilee. "Contemporary Descriptions of Anne Boleyn." EnglishHistory.net. 2004. http://englishhistory.net/tudor/annedesc.html (11 April 2004).
Please note: you must use the year and date you read the source.
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When was the site last updated?
Please visit the Site News page for the last update. I don't post routine maintenance there, only significant additions to the website.
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