The House of Lancaster was a royal house that ruled England from 1399 to 1461. They were a cadet branch of the House of Plantagenet, and they claimed the English throne after the death of King Richard II.
The Lancaster dynasty lasted for 62 years. They were opposed by the House of York, which eventually led to the War of the Roses. This conflict lasted for over 30 years and resulted in many casualties on both sides. The Lancasters eventually emerged victoriously, and Henry VII became the first Tudor king. In this article, we will explore the origins of the Lancaster dynasty and their dramatic rise to power.
They claimed the English throne through their descent from John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, fourth son of King Edward III.
John of Gaunt was one of the most powerful and influential figures in late fourteenth century England. He played a leading role in the government of the country and was also a great military commander.
Henry IV was the first Lancastrian king of England. He came to the throne in 1399, after deposing Richard II, the last of the Plantagenet kings. Henry IV faced many challenges during his reign, including rebellions by powerful nobles and two attempts to overthrow him. He also had to deal with the continuing conflict with Scotland.
Henry IV was a capable ruler and managed to overcome these difficulties. He strengthened royal authority and made important reforms in government. He also promoted education and founded new universities.
Henry IV died in 1413 and was succeeded by his son, Henry V.
Henry V was a successful king who achieved a number of military victories. He recaptured the town of Harfleur in France and then went on to win a decisive victory over the French at the Battle of Agincourt. This victory secured English control of northern France.
Henry V also made important reforms in the government of England. He strengthened royal authority and made important improvements in the administration of justice.
Henry V died in 1422 and was succeeded by his son, Henry VI.
Henry VI was a pious and scholarly king who was interested in the arts and religion. He founded new colleges at Oxford and Cambridge and also patronized the arts.
However, Henry VI was not a successful ruler. He was faced with rebellions by powerful nobles, including the Wars of the Roses. These wars were a series of civil wars between the houses of Lancaster and York that lasted for more than thirty years.
Henry VI was eventually overthrown by Edward IV, the first of the York kings.
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Link will appear as Hanson, Marilee. "House of Lancaster" https://englishhistory.net/middle-ages/house-of-lancaster/, January 27, 2022